1 Toktilar

Brunt The Fall Of The Roman Republic And Related Essays

Peter Astbury Blunt was born on June 23 1917, the son of a Methodist minister, the Rev Samuel Brunt, and of Gladys Eileen Brunt. His mother, whom his friends remember as a warm, cultivated and lively person, was important to him throughout his career, and died only after his retirement. He was educated at Ipswich School and Oriel College, Oxford, where he took a First in Mods in 1937, and in Greats two years later. Both the nature of these undergraduate courses and the dates were highly relevant to his intellectual development and academic record. Mods was devoted to reading the works of the Classical canon, and Greats to a combination of Ancient History, studied through the major narrative writers, and Philosophy, in which Plato and Aristotle played a large part. His eventual predecessor in the Camden Chair, Ronald Syme, who had been Examiner in 1939, was to recall later that PA Brunt's translations had been of exceptional quality.

In 1951 he came back to Oxford as Fellow and Tutor at Oriel, of which he was later an honorary fellow, and then, after a two-year spell in 1968-70 as Bursar of Caius College, Cambridge, he was elected to the Camden Chair and a fellowship at Brasenose, and played important roles in the university and outside it: as a member of the General Board; as chairman of the committee which reviewed the working of the Ashmolean Museum and laid the basis for its present structure; as a delegate of the University Press; and, outside Oxford, as president of the Roman Society in 1980-83 and as a member of the council of the British School at Rome.

What was important, however, was, first, the power and clarity of his lectures and his devotion to tutorial teaching, and second the formidable range and quality of his academic writing, which included a substantial group of papers on Greek History, later collected in Studies in Ancient Greek History and Thought (1992).

But his major impact, even today not yet fully absorbed or sufficiently acknowledged, was in Roman history. A number of major studies, later collected in Roman Imperial Themes (1990), analysed the working of the Empire.

His greatest originality lay in the Republic. At Oriel he had written two fundamental works, of contrasting types, both published in 1971: his massive Italian Manpower, and a slim paperback, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic, whose title implicitly asserted that the prevailing view of Republican politics, as a mere struggle for pre-eminence between individuals, families or "factions", simply did not correspond to the evidence. While personal ambition was of course important in Roman society, political strife related to major social and constitutional issues.

This theme, or set of themes, was more fully argued in the papers, whether new or re-printed, collected in perhaps his most important work, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (1988).

This volume includes fundamental papers such as The Army and the Land in the Roman Revolution; but it was the four concluding chapters, Libertas in the Republic, Amicitia in the Republic, Clientela and Factions, which systematically demolished the interpretation of Republican political history which had reigned for most of the 20th century.

Peter Brunt was the embodiment of the individual scholar whose work was based on his own independent analysis of the evidence. Quintessentially English, he confessed to an aversion from speaking (as opposed to reading) foreign languages. With a deep scepticism about intellectual pretension, and a profound reserve which meant that he did not enter easily into social exchanges, he nonetheless formed strong and abiding friendships.

His tutorials could be eccentric. He liked to tell the story of how he had once dozed off in the presence of an undergraduate, and woke to hear himself declaring: "No, that cannot be correct." He quickly asked his student to repeat the last two sentences of his essay, and was relieved to discover a flagrant error.

He always suffered from ill-health (retiring two years early in 1982) and distrusted his capacity for inspiring others. A life-long bachelor, he lived quietly in Oxford for the remaining period of more than two decades, enjoying going often to Brasenose for lunch, but otherwise adding to his already enormous range of reading in history and in English literature, preparing the three major collections of 1988-1992, and then drafting papers on Roman Stoicism which it is hoped will be brought together in a book, along with some already-published articles.

Mildly teased on one occasion for his instinctive counter-suggestibility, he firmly rejected this idea too. It was perhaps only very near the end that he began to grasp the loyalty and affection which his unalterable intellectual and moral integrity had inspired.

Alan Watson, International Law in Archaic Rome: War and Religion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993)

Alan Watson, The Law of Property in the Later Roman Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968)

Aldo Schiavone, "Classi e politica in una società precapitalistica: il caso della Roa repubblicana" in Quaderni di storia 9 (1977)

Alexander P. d'Entrèves, The Notion of the State: An Introduction to Political Theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967)

Andrew Alföldi, "Hasta-Summa Imperii: The Spear as Embodiment of Sovereignty in Rome" in American Journal of Archaeology 63 (1) (1959)

https://doi.org/10.2307/502105

Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London: Routledge, 1993)

Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic, 43, 200. Sovereignty as exception: Giorgio Agamben, State of Exception, translated by Kevin Attell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005)

Andrew W. Neal, "Cutting Off the King's Head: Foucault's Society Must Be Defended and the Problem of Sovereignty" in Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29 (4) (2004)

Benjamin Straumann, "Constitutional Thought in the Late Roman Republic" in History of Political Thought 32 (2) (2011)

Caroline Williamson, The Laws of the Roman People: Public Law in the Expansion and Decline of the Roman Republic (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2005)

https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.15992

Chaim Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950)

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511518607

Clifford Ando, "Aliens, Ambassadors, and the Integrity of the Empire" in Law and History Review 26 (3) (2008)

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0738248000002546

Clifford Ando, Law, Language, and Empire in the Roman Tradition (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011)

Coleman Phillipson, The International Law and Custom of Ancient Greece and Rome. 2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1911)

D. J. Bederman, International Law in Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Daniel J. Kapust, Republicanism, Rhetoric, and Roman Political Thought: Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Dean Hammer, "Thinking Comparatively About Participatory Communities" in A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic, edited by Dean Hammer (Oxford and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015)

Dean Hammer, Roman Political Thought and the Modern Theoretical Imagination (Norman, 2008)

Dean Hammer, Roman Political Thought: From Cicero to Augustine, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139031073

Elaine Fantham, "Aequabilitas in Cicero's Political Theory and the Greek Tradition of Proportional Justice" in Classical Quarterly 23 (1973)

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0009838800036764

Fergus Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, 1998)

Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, 285-87; also Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" in Critical Inquiry 8 (4) (1982)

Foucault, The Subject and Power, 789. See also Hannah Arendt, "On Violence" in Hannah Arendt, Crises of the Republic (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972)

Francis de Zulueta, "The New Fragments of Gaius. Part II: Societas ercto non cito" in The Journal of Roman Studies 25: (1935)

Francis de Zulueta, The Institutes of Gaius. 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946)

Gaius, Institutiones, 3.154; David Daube, "Societas as Consensual Contract" in The Cambridge Law Journal 6 (3) (1938)

Georges Dumézil, Mitra-Varuna: An Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty. 2nd edition (New York: Zone Books, 1988)

Gilles Deleuze, Foucault, translated by S. Hand (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988)

Henrik Mouritsen, "The Incongruence of Power: The Roman Constitution in Theory and Practice" in A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic, edited by D. Hammer, (Oxford and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015)

Henrik Mouritsen, Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511482885

J.-L. Ferrary, "Les origines de la loi de majesté à Rome." Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1983)

Joy Connolly, The State of Speech: Rhetoric and Political Thought in Ancient Rome (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007)

K. A. Raaflaub, The Discovery of Freedom in Ancient Greece (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004)

Karl Galinsky, Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996)

Lily Ross Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic: The Thirty-five Urban and Rural Tribes (Rome: American Academy in Rome, 1960)

M. P. Nilsson, "The Introduction of Hoplite Tactics at Rome: Its Date and Its Consequences" in The Journal of Roman Studies 19 (1929)

https://doi.org/10.2307/297312

Malcolm Schofield, "Cicero's Definition of Res Publica" in Cicero the Philosopher, edited by J.G.F. Powell (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995)

Malcolm Schofield, Saving the City: Philosopher-kings and Other Classical Paradigms (London: Routledge, 1999)

Martin Loughlin, "Ten Tenets of Sovereignty" in Sovereignty in Transition: Essays in European Law, edited by N. Walker (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2003)

Mary Jaeger, "Agriculture and Identity in Roman Myth" in A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic, edited by Dean Hammer, (Oxford and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015)

Melissa Lane, The Birth of Politics: Eight Greek and Roman Political Ideas and Why They Matter (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015)

https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400865543

Michel Foucault, "An Aesthetics of Existence" in Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings, 1977-1984, edited by L.D. Kritzman, (New York: Routledge, 1988)

Michel Foucault, "Two Lectures" in Power/ Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977, edited by C. Gordon, 78-108 (Brighton: Harvester Press)

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage, 1979)

Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977, edited by Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon, 1980)

Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-78 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Michel Foucault, Society Must be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-76, edited by M. Bertani, A. Fontana, F. Ewald and D. Macey (New York: Picador, 2003)

Michel Foucault, The Government of Self and Others: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1982-1983, translated by Graham Burchell (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)

https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230274730

Michel Foucault, The Hermeneutics of the Subject: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1981-1982. 1st edition (New York: Picador, 2005)

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-09483-4

Michèle Lowrie, Writing, Performance, and Authority in Augustan Rome, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)

Nadia Urbinati, "Competing for Liberty: The Republican Critique of Democracy" in American Political Science Review 106, (2012)

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055412000317

Neal Wood, Cicero's Social and Political Thought (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988)

P. A. Brunt, "The Army and the Land in the Roman Revolution" in The Journal of Roman Studies 52 (1962)

https://doi.org/10.2307/297878

P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988)

Patchen Markell, "The Insufficiency of Non-Domination" in Political Theory 36 (1) (2008)

https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591707310084

Philip Pettit, "Democracy, Electoral and Contestatory" in Nomos 42 (2000)

Philip Pettit, "Freedom as Antipower" in Ethics 106 (3) (1996)

Philip Pettit, A Theory of Freedom: From the Psychology to the Politics of Agency (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)

Philip Pettit, Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997)

Quentin Skinner "The State" in Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, edited by T. Ball, J. Farr and R. Hanson, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Quentin Skinner, "A Genealogy of the Modern State" Proceedings of the British Academy, 162 (2009) https://doi.org/10.5871/bacad/9780197264584.003.0011

Quentin Skinner, "A Third Concept of Liberty" in Proceedings of the British Academy 117 (2002)

Quentin Skinner, "Political Philosophy" in The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, edited by C.B. Schmitt, Q. Skinner and E. Kessler, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988)

Quentin Skinner, "Rethinking Political Liberty" in History Workshop Journal 61 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1093/hwj/dbi054

Quentin Skinner, "The Sovereign State: A Genealogy" in Sovereignty in Fragments: The Past, Present and Future of a Contested Concept, edited by H. Kalmo and Q. Skinner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Quentin Skinner, Liberty Before Liberalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Quentin Skinner, Visions of Politics. Vol. 2: Renaissance Virtues (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Richard A. Bauman, The Crimen Maiestatis in the Roman Republic and Augustan Principate. (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1967)

Richard Heinze, "Auctoritas" in Hermes 60 (3) (1929)

Theodor Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, edited by K.J. Marquardt (Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1887-1888)

Valentina Arena, Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the Late Roman Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Yan Thomas, "L'institution de la Majesté" in Revue de synthèse 112 (3-4) (1991) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03181085


Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *